Picture of the month
Picture of the Month: Shapes of Snow
Will or won’t it come this winter? The snow. Things are looking bad for our region right now. Reason enough to choose a photo from a snow-sure area as the picture of the month February.
In Vinje, a municipality in southern Norway, the scenery is covered with freshly fallen snow crystals in February. Perfect weather for skiing, sledding, snowball fights – and sculpting. This is why every year many people make a pilgrimage to Telemark for the “Vinje Snoforming Festival”. Students at the Institute of Architecture-Related Art at the TU Braunschweig have been shaping snow sculptures in this international and interdisciplinary exchange project for eight years in a row under the guidance of the artist Ilka Raupach.
“A walk through the wilderness” is the name of the snow sculpture by Nils Aschemann, Isabel Dohle, Leo Goldenbaum, Nadine Grabiger, Johanna Hamel, Daniel Ilunga Matthiesen, Anna-Lisa Lignow, Jan Schellhorn, Aleigh Smith and Xingyu Zhu. Arranged around two concentric circles, each carefully crafted piece represents a state of wilderness: fear, refuge, expanse, liberation and tranquility.
In Braunschweig, the architecture students designed their models on a scale of 1:30. On site, in Vinje, they decided where to place the sculptures – in keeping with their surroundings and facing the sun. Before the sculptural work could begin, the students had to construct three-metre high cubes using plywood boarding, which they filled with snow. The Braunschweig students moved 20 tons per cube – regardless of the weather conditions. They stamped the snow in the mould until it solidified. Then they could remove the wooden casing and let the raw blocks freeze overnight.
With shovels and saws
Only then did the actual sculpting begin: first with shovels, then with saws and grinding tools to refine the shape. For one week they worked on their sculptures. Works that disappear when the snow melts. “This way, the snowy landscape becomes a laboratory for us. Walk-in sculptures and temporary architecture in the context of the landscape are created,” says Ilka Raupach. “Working with snow as a material offered the students a rare opportunity, as it is not a material typically used in architectural design. This unique experience will certainly influence their work as architects”.
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Pictures of previous months
Picture of the month January 2020
It is still properly packed in crates, underway on a ship from Bremerhaven, heading for the Arctic. Its destination is the icebreaker “Polarstern”, which is frozen in sea ice and drifting across the North Pole. The quadrocopter ALiCE of the Institute of Flight Guidance (IFF) at Technische Universität Braunschweig will be deployed on the MOSAiC expedition led by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). Our picture of the month shows it during the Polarstern expedition 2017 east of Greenland. Over the course of the five-week research expedition in September and October 2017, scientists Dr Falk Pätzold and Thomas Krüger from IFF, with support from ALiCE (Airborne tool for methane isotopic composition and polar meteorological experiments), investigated climate issues: how the atmosphere is affected by sea ice and what role sea ice plays in the introduction of methane into the atmosphere. Once again – for MOSAiC, the largest Arctic expedition in history – the quadrocopter will take air samples during flights “on sight” at altitudes of up to 1,000 metres. This will enable the research team to use isotope analysis to determine the sources of methane in the Arctic. Pätzold, a specialist for meteorological measurement technology at the IFF, will fly to Tromsø in Norway at the end of January and from there set out for the icebreaker “Polarstern” to join the international research team on the Arctic expedition. Besides ALiCE, the helicopter towed probe “HELiPOD” of IFF is also on its way to “Polarstern” – equipped with 60 measuring instruments, some new, some tried and trusted. In addition to atmospheric measurements, the ice surface is documented, aerosols are measured and the influence of clouds is analysed. The data will allow scientists to investigate interactions between sea ice, atmosphere and ocean. Pätzold will also be on board the helicopter and make sure that the HELiPOD sensors operate smoothly. According to AWI, hardly any other region has warmed up as significantly as the Arctic in recent decades. At the same time, however, year-round observations from the ice-covered Arctic Ocean are lacking. With the MOSAiC expedition this is now possible. The “Polarstern” and its international research team are spending a whole year in the Arctic, with the icebreaker drifting through the Arctic Ocean while it is frozen. This means that for the first time research can take place near the North Pole during the Arctic winter.
Picture of the month December 2019
Called back into action: nut tongs, screw nutcrackers, “Nusschleuders” and also nut biters – grim-looking wooden figures that crack walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds with their mouths using leverage. Somewhat different nutcrackers were created in the summer semester 2019 at the Institute for Electrical Measurement Science and Fundamental Electrical Engineering (EMG), which we show in our picture of the month. Students designed and produced a total of eight different models in their semester project for the lecture “Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing)”. They were free to let their creativity run wild. The only requirement was that all printing processes available at the institute had to be used and that the object should be able to really crack peanuts, walnuts or hazelnuts at the end of the final presentation. “That actually worked for most of them, although some designs had to surrender hazelnuts, at the latest, and occasionally broke,” says Dr. Benedikt Hampel, who gives the lecture and has already dealt with the topic of 3D printing in his doctorate. In the course, the students first learned the basics of construction on the computer, so that they could later use it to design objects for 3D printing. Subsequently, the details of different printing processes with their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. Of course, the practice in 3D printing was not to be missed. Some groups focused on attractive design: for example, a dinosaur and a nut-cracking helicopter were created. Other students implemented additional functions in their objects so that different adapters were developed for the different nuts or collection containers for collecting the nutshells. In one project, electronics were even implemented to display the nutcracking force using both LEDs and a computer. There will be a new task during the lecture next summer semester. It will be interesting to see which creative ideas the students will implement.
Picture of the month November 2019
It has become an integral part of many areas of our lives and is used primarily as a mobile energy storage device in smartphones, notebooks and electric cars: the lithium-ion battery is currently in the focus of science in order to economically and eco-efficiently implement topics such as the energy revolution and the change in propulsion technologies. Our picture of the month was taken in the drying channel of the continuous coating line at Battery LabFactory Braunschweig (BLB). These are the process steps “coating and drying”, two of 18 process steps in total that a lithium-ion battery passes through during production. In the simplest case, a lithium-ion battery cell consists of two electrodes (anode and cathode), an electrolyte and the separator, which electrically separates the two electrodes from each other. The picture of the month shows a copper foil on which the active electrochemical and passive materials were applied in advance using a comma bar process, i.e. a coating process. This is a graphite anode that represents the negative electrode. Of the various institutes that are active at BLB, the Institute for Particle Technology deals, among other things, with the process steps of coating and drying. An alternative process that is being investigated at BLB is slot die coating. Besides the advantage of the intermittent coating, a coating with interruptions, the independence of the coating thickness from the properties of the electrode paste is given here. Drying is a cost-intensive step in all industrial processes. The main focus is on technologies such as infrared drying to increase drying speeds and reduce energy costs. Furthermore, coating errors and binder migration can be avoided through optimized drying, thus reducing material waste.
Picture of the month October 2019
Klimt, Hundertwasser or who created this psychedelic picture? As a matter of fact, the photo, in which BRICS building can be made out in the background, comes from the Institute for System Safety at the TU Braunschweig. It gives an exciting insight into the world of artificial intelligence. In the photo, the scientists have reinforced the patterns that an artificial neural network “sees” internally. To classify the image as a building, dog or street sign, for example, the network first extracts fine block structures that were reinforced throughout the photo. Later, these are processed internally into more complex patterns, easily recognizable by the dog’s snouts. This example visually shows how we can better understand artificial neural networks before they are implemented, for instance in autonomous driving vehicles. As part of their research at the Institute for System Security, the scientists are investigating the use of artificial intelligence in safety-critical applications. They research how intelligent systems can be trained on the basis of data and thus adapt themselves to new risks. In this way, researchers can, for example, develop new methods for detecting computer malware. However, today’s artificial intelligence methods are themselves vulnerable. Attackers can either manipulate the learning process itself or produce the desired output through targeted manipulation. It has been shown, for example, that by affixing stickers to road signs it is possible to specifically manipulate the recognition of autonomous vehicles. Because of this, the institute scientists are also also investigating the target of artificial
intelligence. A better understanding of the learned interrelationships themselves is a key issue here – similar to how an exam helps to understand what the students have learned from a lecture.
Picture of the month September 2019
Our picture of the month September comes from the new Research Center for Quantum and Nanometrology, “Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology” (LENA). More precisely, it is a direct view into the sample chamber of one of the large nanoanalytical instruments, the X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). This is a surface-sensitive technique that allows qualitative and quantitative statements to be made about the chemical elements present on the surface as well as their chemical environment, bonds and oxidation state.
The XPS is used, for example, in biomedical engineering. Within the research group “FOR 2180 Graded Implants”, Sarah Oehmichen from the Institute of Technical Chemistry deals with the surface optimization of polymer-based implants. These are electro-spun fibre mats which have been modified both in a classical chemical way and by plasma treatment. The XPS methodology is used here to prove the success of the respective modification and to better understand and classify results from other investigations, for example from cell tests. This is done with regard to the development of an implant for the tendon-bone transition in the shoulder. Another field of application is battery research, where the analysis of material properties on surfaces and interfaces plays an important role.
The new measurement setup in the LENA is equipped in such a way that scientists can reduce the standard information depth of this technique from 10 nm (with monochromatized Al K-alpha at 1486eV) to the outermost 1-3 nm of the sample surface by angle-resolved measurements or increase it to up to 15-20 nm by using a different anode material. With the help of an Arn+ Gas Cluster ion source, depth profiles can be recorded, which then make it possible to look even deeper into the sample. In addition to XPS, other measurement modes such as UPS, ISS, AES, SEM and SAM are also possible.